10042. And thou shalt take one ram. That this signifies the good of innocence in the internal man, is evident from the signification of a "ram," as being the good of innocence and of charity in the internal man (of which in what follows). As in this chapter the sacrifices and burnt-offerings of rams and of lambs are treated of, it must be told what was signified by the animals in general that were offered in the sacrifices and burnt-offerings. These animals were oxen, bullocks, he-goats, rams, she-goats, and he-kids; also he-lambs, she-lambs, and she-kids. One who does not know what these animals signify, cannot possibly know what is specifically signified by the sacrifices and burnt-offerings of them. Be it known that all animals on the earth signify such things as are in man, which in general bear relation to the affections of his will and the thoughts of his understanding, thus to goods and truths, for goods are of the will, and truths are of the understanding. And as they bear relation to goods and truths, they also bear relation to love and faith, for all things of love are called goods, and all things of faith are called truths.
 That animals of different kinds have such a signification has its cause in the representatives in the other life; for in that life there appear animals of many genera and innumerable species. Such animals there are appearances to the very life, corresponding to the affections and thoughts that exist with the spirits and angels. That this is so can be seen also from the prophetic visions in the Word throughout; for all things seen by the prophets are such as appear before the angels in heaven. From this it is that beasts are so frequently mentioned in the Word, and by everyone of them is signified something that bears relation to such things as are in man (of which above). Neither is man anything but an animal in respect to his external man, but he is distinguished from animals by the internal man, whereby both the internal and the external man can be elevated toward heaven and to God, and thence receive faith and love. From this it is that beasts were employed in the sacrifices and burnt-offerings. He who does not know this, cannot possibly know why it was commanded at one time to offer bullocks, rams, and he-lambs; at another time oxen, she-goats, and she-lambs; and at another he-goats, he-kids, and she-kids; for otherwise what would be the purpose of such things? (That in the Word "beasts" signify goods and evils with man, and also truths and falsities, see n. 142, 143, 246, 714, 715, 776, 1823, 2179, 2180, 2781, 3218, 3519, 5198, 7523, 7872, 9090; and that on this account they were employed in the sacrifices, n. 1823, 2180, 2805, 2807, 2830.)
 But as regards the sacrifices and burnt-offerings from them, be it known: (1) that the representative worship with the Jewish and Israelitish nation consisted chiefly in sacrifices and burnt-offerings; (2) that the sacrifices and burnt-offerings in general signified the regeneration of man through the truths of faith and the goods of love from the Lord; and in the supreme sense the glorification of the Lord's Human; (3) that everything of worship, according to the various things of it, was represented by the sacrifices and burnt-offerings, thus with all variety; and that for this reason various kinds of animals were commanded.
 But to take up these points in detail: (1) That the representative worship with the Jewish and Israelitish nation consisted chiefly in sacrifices and burnt-offerings, is evident from the fact that they were employed for every sin, and for every guilt; also for every consecration and inauguration; and besides on every day, on every Sabbath, every new moon, and every festival; and that for this reason the altar was the most holy of all things, and all the other things of worship with that nation depended upon these. Therefore where the abolition of representative worship is treated of in Daniel, it is said that "the sacrifice and oblation shall cease" (Dan. 9:27), and "the continual sacrifice shall be removed" (Dan. 8:10-13; 11:31; 12:11). By "the continual sacrifice" is specifically signified the sacrifice that was offered daily, and in general all worship. But see what has already been shown about these things, namely, that sacrifices in general signify all representative worship (n. 923, 2165, 6905, 8680, 8936); that the altar was the principal representative of the Lord and from this of worship (n. 2771, 2811, 8935, 8940, 9388, 9389, 9714, 9964); that the ancients before Eber knew nothing of sacrifices (n. 2180); that by Eber, thus with the Hebrew nation, and from this with the posterity of Jacob, sacrifices were instituted, and why (n. 1128, 1343, 2180, 2818); that sacrifices were not commanded, but permitted (n. 2180).
 (2) That sacrifices and burnt-offerings in general signified the regeneration of man through the truths of faith and the goods of love to the Lord from the Lord, is evident from the fact that all things of worship relate to purification from evils and falsities, to the implanting of truth and good, and to their conjunction, thus to regeneration; for by means of these three things man is regenerated; consequently sacrifices and burnt-offerings were offered for every sin and for every guilt; and when they were offered, it is said that expiation was made and that pardon would be granted (Lev. 4:20, 26, 31, 35; 5:6, 10, 13, 16, 18; 6:7; 7:7; 10:17; 14:18, 19; 15:30, 31; 16:6, 24; 17:11). The pardon of sins, expiation, propitiation, and redemption, are also nothing else than purification from evils and falsities, the implantation of good and truth, and their conjunction, thus regeneration (n. 9076, 9452-9454, 9937, 9938). Every process of regeneration is also described by the special rituals of the several sacrifices and burnt-offerings, and it is opened when the representatives are unfolded by means of the internal sense (n. 10022).
 That in the supreme sense the sacrifices and burnt-offerings signify the glorification of the Lord's Human, is because all the rituals of worship instituted with the Israelitish and Jewish nation regarded the Lord alone; thus the sacrifices and burnt-offerings especially regarded Him, because by them in general was represented everything of worship, as has been shown above. Moreover, the regeneration of man is from no other source than the Lord (n. 9506, 9715, 9486, 9487, 9809, 10019); and therefore where the regeneration of man is treated of in the Word, in the supreme sense the glorification of the Lord's Human is treated of; for the regeneration of man is an image of the glorification of the Lord (n. 3138, 3212, 3296, 3490, 4402, 5688). To glorify the Human is to make it Divine, but to regenerate man is to make him heavenly, in order that the Divine of the Lord may dwell in him.
 (3) That everything of worship, according to the various things of it, was represented by the sacrifices and burnt-offerings, thus with all variety, and that for this reason various kinds of animals were commanded, is evident from the various things for which sacrifices and burnt-offerings were made; namely, for sins by error, and for sins not by error; for every transgression and uncleanness, whether with the priest, or with the whole assembly, or with a prince, or with any soul; for cleansing from leprosy; for purification after child-bearing; for the consecration of the altar, of the Tent of meeting and of all things therein; for the cleansing of the same when Aaron once every year entered into the holy of holies; for the inauguration of Aaron and his sons into the priesthood; for the consecration of the Nazirites; and in general on the three feasts, on each of the new moons, on the Sabbaths, and daily in the morning and between the evenings; besides the votive and voluntary offerings.
 As there were sacrifices and burnt-offerings for such various purposes, and by them were represented the various things of worship, therefore also the various kinds of animals that were to be offered were commanded; namely, bullocks, oxen, and he-goats; rams, she-goats, and he-kids; he-lambs, she-lambs, and she-kids; and by the sacrifices and burnt-offerings from the bullock, ox, and he-goat were represented the purification and regeneration of the external or natural man; by those from the ram, she-goat, and he-kid were represented the purification of the internal or spiritual man; and by those from the he-lamb, she-lamb, and she-kid were represented the purification or regeneration of the inmost or celestial man. (That there are three things that are in succession with man: the celestial, the spiritual, and the natural, see n. 9992, 10005, 10117; and that in order to be regenerated a man must be regenerated as to things internal and also external, see the places cited in n. 9325 at the end.)
 But what is specifically signified by the sacrifice and the burnt-offering from a ram, which are treated of in this chapter, is evident from the passages in the Word where sacrifices and burnt-offerings from a ram are described, and where a ram is mentioned; from which it is plain that by a "ram" is signified the good of innocence and of charity in the internal man; and by the sacrifice and burnt-offering from it, the purification and regeneration of the internal man; thus the implantation of the good of innocence and charity therein. That this is signified by a "ram," is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah:
All the flocks of Arabia shall be gathered together to thee, the rams of Nebaioth shall minister to thee; they shall come up with acceptance on Mine altar (Isa. 60:7);
where the subject treated of is the Lord and His heaven and church; "the flocks of Arabia" denote all the goods of the internal man; "the rams of Nebaioth" denote the goods of innocence and of charity there. (That "flocks" denote the good of the internal man, see n. 8937, 9135; that "Arabia" denotes where good is, n. 3268; that "Nebaioth" denotes those who are there in this good, n. 3268, 3686, 3688.)
 In Ezekiel:
Arabia and all the princes of Kedar, the traders of thy hand in small cattle, and rams, and he-goats (Ezek. 27:21);
speaking of Tyre, by which is signified the church where are the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1201); "traders" denote those who have these knowledges and communicate them (n. 2967, 4453); "small cattle" denote the goods of love; "rams," the goods of charity; and "he-goats," the goods of faith. In the Word mention is made of "flocks," "small cattle" [pecora], and "cattle" [pecudes], which in the original tongue are distinguished by their names, and by "flocks" are signified in general internal things; by "cattle," the same specifically, and by "small cattle," inmost things specifically; but by "herds" are signified external things. In Jeremiah:
I will bring them down like small cattle to the slaughter, like rams with he-goats (Jer. 51:40);
by "small cattle," "rams," and "he-goats" similar things are here signified.
 In Ezekiel:
Thus said the Lord Jehovih, Behold I judge between cattle and cattle, and between the rams and the he-goats (Ezek. 34:17);
"between cattle and cattle" denotes between those who are in the interior things of good and of evil; "between the rams and the he-goats" denotes between those who are in charity and thence in faith, and those who are in the truths of faith without charity; "rams" here signify the like as sheep, for rams are the males of sheep (that "sheep" denote those who are in charity and from this in faith, see n. 4169, 4809; and that "he-goats" denote those who are in truths, which are called the truths of faith, without charity, n. 4169, 4769). Like things are signified by the "ram" and the "he-goat" in Daniel 8; and by the "sheep" and the "he-goats" in Matthew 25:32.
 In Moses:
If a soul hath sinned through error, he shall bring his guilt to Jehovah, a ram without blemish out of the flock (Lev. 5:15, 18; 6:6);
by the sacrifices from a ram is signified the purification of the internal man and the implantation of the good of innocence therein; for "sin through error" denotes sin from ignorance in which is innocence, and the innocence of ignorance is of the internal man.
 In the same:
In the new moons they were to offer two bullocks, one ram, and seven he-lambs; and afterward a he-goat; in like manner on every day of the passover; and on the day of the firstfruits (Num. 28:11, 15, 19, 22, 27);
this was in order that there might be represented the purification of the whole man, as well external as internal and inmost; by the sacrifice and burnt-offering from bullocks, the purification of the external man; from a ram, the purification of the internal man; and from the lambs, the purification of the inmost man. And as purification was represented, so also was the implanting of the good of innocence, for a "bullock" denotes the good of innocence in the external man; a "ram," in the internal, and a "he-lamb" in the inmost, as said above; that the last of them was a he-goat was because by a "he-goat" is signified the truth of faith in the external man, and the truth of faith there is the ultimate (n. 9959). As the goods and truths with man follow in this order, therefore also the presents of the princes of Israel, when the altar and the Tent of meeting were anointed, were a bullock, a ram, and a he-lamb for burnt-offerings; and a he-goat for a sacrifice (Num. 7:15-17, 21-23, 27-29, 33, and following verses). From all this it can now be seen that a "ram" signifies the good of innocence and of charity in the internal man.