1151. Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. That these were so many nations among whom such worship existed, and that in the internal sense they signify so many doctrinals, which were the same as rituals, which they devoutly observed, is very evident from the Word, where these nations are frequently mentioned; for they everywhere signify external worship-sometimes external worship corresponding to internal, sometimes the opposite. The reason why they signify the opposite is that all churches, wherever they were, in process of time have been changed, even to their opposites. That the nations here named signify nothing but external worship, consequently their doctrinals which were rituals, can be established, as was said, from the Word in other places, especially in the Prophets.  Thus, of Magog, Meshech, Tubal, and Gomer, it is written in Ezekiel:
Son of man, set thy face toward Gog, the land of Magog, the prince, head of Meshech and Tubal; and prophesy against him and say, Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, Behold I am against thee, O Gog, prince, head of Meshech and Tubal, and I will turn thee about, and put hooks, into thy jaws, and I will bring thee forth, and all thine army, horses and horsemen, all of them clothed in full, a great company with buckler and shield, all of them handling swords; Persia, Cush, and Put with them; with them Gomer and all his hordes; the house of Togarmah in the sides of the north, and all his hordes. In the latter years thou shalt come into the land that is brought back from the sword, that is gathered out of many peoples, upon the mountains of Israel, which have been made a waste (Ezek. 38:2-6, 8).
This whole chapter treats of the church, which became perverted, and at length made all worship consist in externals, or rituals; charity, which is signified by "the mountains of Israel," being extinguished. Here "Gog, and the land of Magog the prince and head of Meshech and Tubal," is worship in externals. Anyone may see that it is not Gog and Magog that are treated of, for the Word of the Lord does not treat of worldly things, but enfolds within it Divine things.
 In the same:
Prophesy upon Gog, and say, Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, Behold I am against thee, O Gog, prince, head of Meshech and Tubal; and I will turn thee about, and take a sixth part of thee, I will cause thee to come up from the sides of the north, and will bring thee upon the mountains of Israel; upon the mountains of Israel thou shalt fall, thou and all thy hordes, and the people that are with thee (Ezek. 39:1-2, 4).
The whole of this chapter, likewise, treats of external worship separated from internal, and become idolatrous, which is here signified by Gog, Meshech, and Tubal, by whom also are meant the doctrinals which they receive and afterwards confirm by the literal sense of the Word, and thus falsify truths and destroy internal worship. For, as was said, the opposite also are signified by the same nations.
 In John:
When the thousand years are finished, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, and shall go forth to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to war. They went up over the plain of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city (Rev. 20:7-9);
where "Gog and Magog" have a similar signification. External worship separate from internal, that is, separate from love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor, is nothing else than idolatrous, which encompasses the camp of the saints, and the beloved city.
 Of Meshech and Tubal it is said in Ezekiel:
There is Meshech, Tubal, and all her multitude; her graves are round about her; all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword; for they caused their terror in the land of the living (Ezek. 32:26).
The subject here is Egypt, or the memory-knowledges wherewith men desire to explore spiritual things. "Meshech and Tubal" denote doctrinals which are rituals, and which, when there is no love, are called "uncircumcised." Hence they are slain with the sword, and a terror in the land of the living.
 Of Javan it is said in Joel:
The sons of Judah and the sons of Jerusalem ye have sold unto the sons of the Javanites that ye might remove them far from their border (Joel 3:6).
"The sons of Judah" denote celestial things of faith; "the sons of Jerusalem," spiritual things of faith-thus things internal; and "the sons of the Javanites," worship in externals separate from what is internal. Because this worship is so widely remote from what is internal, it is said that they have "removed them far from their border."
 Javan and Tubal denote true external worship itself in Isaiah:
It shall come that I will gather all nations and tongues, and they shall come, and shall see My glow. And I will set a sign among them, and I will send such as escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, to the Isles afar off, that have not heard My fame, neither have seen My glory; and they shall declare My glory among the nations (Isa. 66:18-19).
The subject here is the kingdom of the Lord and His coming. "Tubal and Javan" denote those who are in external worship corresponding to internal, who are to be instructed concerning internal things.