3305. And he called his name Jacob. That this signifies the doctrine of truth of the natural, is evident from the signification of "calling a name," or of "calling by name," as being quality (concerning which see just above, n. 3302). The quality that is represented by Jacob is the doctrine of truth of the natural, as may be seen from the representation of Esau, as being the good of life of the truth of the natural (n. 3300), and from many places in the Word, where he is named. There are two things which constitute the natural, as there are two that constitute the rational, nay, that constitute the whole man, one of which is of life, and the other of doctrine. That which is of life belongs to the will, while that which is of doctrine belongs to the understanding. The former is called good, and the latter truth. This good is that which is represented by Esau, and the truth by Jacob; or what is the same, the good of life of the truth of the natural is that which is represented by Esau, and the doctrine of truth of the natural is that which is represented by Jacob. Whether you say the good of life of the truth of the natural and the doctrine of truth of the natural, or those who are in these things, it is the same; for the good of life and the doctrine of truth cannot exist apart from their subject. If they have no subject they are a kind of abstract affair which nevertheless has regard to the man in whom this may be. Wherefore by "Jacob" are here signified those who are in the doctrine of truth of the natural.
 They who abide in the mere sense of the letter believe that by "Jacob" in the Word is meant all that people which was descended from Jacob, and for this reason they apply to that people all things that have been said historically and prophetically concerning Jacob. But the Word is Divine chiefly in this respect, that all things in it both in general and in particular do not regard one nation or one people, but the universal human race; namely, that which is, which has been, and which will be; and also that which is still more universal, namely, the Lord's kingdom in the heavens; and in the supreme sense, the Lord Himself. It is for this reason that the Word is Divine. If it had regard merely to one nation, then it would be human, and there would be nothing more of the Divine in it than there was of the holy of worship with that nation; and everyone may know that there was none of this with the people called "Jacob;" from which it is evident that by "Jacob" in the Word is not meant Jacob, and also that by "Israel" is not meant Israel; for almost everywhere in the prophecies, when Jacob is named, Israel is named also, and no one can know what is specifically meant by the one, and what by the other, except from the sense which lies more deeply concealed and contains within it the arcana of heaven.
 That by "Jacob" therefore in the internal sense is signified the doctrine of truth of the natural; or what is the same, those who are in this doctrine, of whatever nation they may be; and that in the supreme sense the Lord is meant is evident from the following passages. In Luke:
The angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary, for thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and shalt bring forth a Son, and shalt call His name Jesus. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God shall give unto Him the throne of His father David; and He shall reign over the house of Jacob forever; and of His kingdom there shall be no end (Luke 1:30-33).
That here by the "house of Jacob" is not meant the Jewish nation or people can be seen by all, for the Lord's kingdom was not over that people, but over all in the universe who have faith in Him, and who from faith are in charity. Hence it is evident that by "Jacob" as here named by the angel is not meant the people of Jacob; and consequently neither in other places, by the "seed of Jacob," the "sons of Jacob," the "land of Jacob," the "inheritance of Jacob," the "king of Jacob," and the "God of Jacob," which expressions so often occur in the Word of the Old Testament, are these intended.
 The case is the same in respect to "Israel" as in Matthew:
The angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called My Son (Matt. 2:13, 15);
and in the prophet it is said:
When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called My son out of Egypt (Hos. 11:1).
That in this passage "Israel" is the Lord is very evident; and yet from the sense of the letter it cannot be known but that the "child Israel" means the earliest descendants of Jacob, who came into Egypt and were afterwards called out thence. It is the same in other passages where "Jacob" and "Israel" are named, although this does not appear from the sense of the letter, as in Isaiah:
Hear O Jacob my servant; and Israel, whom I have chosen; thus saith Jehovah who made thee, and formed thee from the womb, who will help thee; Fear not O Jacob my servant, and thou Jeshurun whom I have chosen; for I will pour water upon him that is thirsty, and streams upon the dry ground; I will pour My spirit upon thy seed, and My blessing upon thine offspring; this one shall say, I am Jehovah's; and this shall call himself by the name of Jacob; and that one shall write with his hand unto Jehovah, and surname himself by the name of Israel (Isa. 44:1-3, 5);
where "Jacob" and "Israel" evidently denote the Lord; and the "seed," and "offspring of Jacob," those who are in faith in Him.
 In the prophecy concerning the sons of Israel in Moses:
Joseph shall sit in the strength of his bow, and the arms of his hands shall be made strong by the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob; from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel (Gen. 49:24);
where also the "Mighty One of Jacob" and the "stone of Israel" clearly denote the Lord. In Isaiah:
My glory will I not give to another; attend unto Me, O Jacob, and Israel My called, I am He; I am the first, I also am the last (Isa. 48:11-12);
here also "Jacob" and "Israel" signify the Lord. In Ezekiel:
I will take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel his companions, and I will add them upon him with the stick of Judah, and make them one stick, and they shall be one in My hand. I will take the sons of Israel from among the nations, whither they be gone, and will gather them from every side, and bring them upon their own land; and I will make them one nation in the land, upon the mountains of Israel; and one king shall be king to them all, and they shall be no more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms anymore at all. My servant David shall be king over them, and they all shall have one shepherd. And they shall dwell on the land that I have given unto Jacob My servant, wherein your fathers dwelt; and they shall dwell therein, they and their sons, and their sons, forever; and David My servant shall be prince to them forever: I will make a covenant of peace with them, it shall be an everlasting covenant with them; and I will place them, and multiply them, and will set My sanctuary in the midst of them forevermore. My tabernacle also shall be with them; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. And the nations shall know that I Jehovah do sanctify Israel, when My sanctuary is in the midst of them for evermore (Ezek. 37:19, 21-22, 24-28);
here again it is clearly manifest that by "Joseph," "Ephraim," "Judah," "Israel," "Jacob," and "David," are not meant these persons, but in the supreme sense Divine spiritual things which are in the Lord, and which are the Lord's in His kingdom and church. That David was not to be, as is said, their king and prince forever, everyone may know; but that by "David" is meant the Lord may be seen above (n. 1888). It may also be known that Israel will not be gathered together from wherever they have been dispersed, and will not be sanctified, and the sanctuary placed in the midst of them forever, as is said; but this is to be with those who in the representative sense are signified by "Israel;" and who, as is known, are all the faithful.
 In Micah:
Assembling I will assemble O Jacob, all of thee; gathering I will gather the remnant of Israel; I will put them together as the sheep of Bozrah (Micah 2:12);
where the meaning is similar. In Isaiah:
Jacob shall cause to take root those who come; Israel shall blossom and bud; and they shall fill the face of the world with produce (Isa. 27:6);
where also the meaning is similar. In the same:
Thus saith Jehovah who redeemed Abraham, to the house of Jacob; Jacob shall not now be ashamed, neither shall his face now wax pale; for when he seeth his children, the work of My hands, in the midst of him, they shall sanctify My name; yea, they shall sanctify the Holy One of Jacob, and shall stand in awe of the God of Israel. They also that err in spirit shall know intelligence (Isa. 29:22-24).
In the same:
Thus saith Jehovah to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him, and I will loose the loins of kings; to open the doors before him, and the gates shall not be shut; I will go before thee, and make the crooked places straight; I will break in pieces the doors of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron; I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that I am Jehovah, who am called by thy name, the God of Israel, for Jacob My servant's sake, and Israel Mine elect. I have called thee by thy name, I have surnamed thee when thou didst not know Me (Isa. 45:1-4);
where also the Lord is plainly treated of. In Micah:
In the last days it shall come to pass that the mountain of the house of Jehovah shall be established as the head of the mountains; and many nations shall go, and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of Jehovah, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His paths; for out of Zion shall go forth the doctrine, and the Word of Jehovah from Jerusalem (Micah 4:1-2).
Jehovah loveth the gates of Zion more than all the dwellings of Jacob; glorious things shall be preached in thee, O city of God (Ps. 87:2-3).
They shall serve Jehovah their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them. And thou, fear thou not, O Jacob My servant, saith Jehovah; neither be dismayed, O Israel; for lo I will save thee from afar (Jer. 30:9, 10).
Listen O isles unto me; and hearken ye peoples from far; Jehovah hath called me from the womb; from the bowels of my mother hath He made mention of my name; and He said unto me, Thou art My servant Israel, in whom I will be made glorious (Isa. 49:1, 3).
Then shalt thou delight thyself in Jehovah, and I will make thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob (Isa. 58:14).
I will bring forth a seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah an inheritor of My mountains, that Mine elect may possess it, and My servants shall dwell there (Isa. 65:9).
 In the supreme sense of all these passages by "Jacob" and "Israel" is meant the Lord; and in the representative sense the Lord's spiritual kingdom, and the church which is a church from the doctrine of truth and the life of good. By "Jacob" are meant those who are in the externals of this church; and by "Israel" those who are in its internals. From these and many other passages it is evident that by "Jacob" is nowhere meant Jacob, neither by "Israel," Israel; and in the same way, by "Isaac" is not meant Isaac, nor by "Abraham," Abraham, where they are named; as in Matthew:
Many shall come from the east and the west, and shall recline with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of the heavens (Matt. 8:11).
Ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets in the kingdom of God (Luke 13:28).
Lazarus was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom (Luke 16:20, 22).
For in heaven they know nothing of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; and when these words are read by man, the angels perceive nought but the Lord as to the Divine and the Divine Human; and by "reclining with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," they perceive nought but being with the Lord; and by being "in Abraham's bosom," nought but being in the Lord. But it was thus said because at that time man was so far removed from internal things that he did not know and was not willing to know otherwise than that all things in the Word are according to the letter; and when the Lord spoke with men according to the letter, it was that they might receive faith, and also that there might even then be an internal sense within, by which there could be the conjunction of man with Himself. This being the case, it may appear what is signified in the Word of the Old Testament by the "God of Jacob," and by the "Holy One of Israel," namely, the Lord Himself. (That the "God of Jacob" is the Lord, see 2 Sam. 23:1; Isa. 2:3; 41:21; Micah 4:2; Ps. 20:1; 46:7; 75:9; 76:6; 81:1, 4; 84:8; 94:7; 114:7; 132:2; 146:5. That the "Holy One of Israel" is the Lord, see Isa. 1:4; 5:19, 24; 10:20; 12:6; 17:7; 29:19; 30:11, 12, 15; 31:1; 37:23; 41:14, 16, 20; 43:3, 14; 45:11; 47:4; 48:17; 49:7; 54:5; 55:5; 60:14; Jer. 50:29; Ezek. 39:7; Ps. 71:22; 78:41; 89:18.)