4292. In the internal historical sense by "he said, Thy name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel," is signified that they could not represent as Jacob, but as from a new quality given them. This may be seen from the meaning of "Jacob" in the Word, as being his posterity (see n. 4281); and from the signification of a "name," as being quality (see just above, n. 4291). The new quality itself is "Israel" in the internal sense; for "Israel" is the celestial spiritual, thus the internal man (n. 4286). And because "Israel" is the celestial spiritual and thus the internal man, "Israel" is also the internal spiritual church; for whether you speak of the spiritual man or the spiritual church, it is the same thing; because the spiritual man is a church in particular, and a number are a church in general. If a man were not a church in particular, there would not be any church in general. A congregation in general is what in common speech is called a church, but in order that there may be any church, everyone in this congregation must be such as is the church in general, because every general involves parts similar to itself.
 As regards the matter itself (that they could not represent as Jacob, but as from a new quality given them, which is "Israel") the case is this. It was specifically Jacob's posterity who represented the church, but not Isaac's specifically; for Isaac's posterity were not from Jacob only, but also from Esau. Still less was it Abraham's posterity specifically; for Abraham's posterity were not from Jacob only, but also from Esau, and likewise from Ishmael, as also from his sons by his second wife Keturah - thus from Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah, and their sons (see Gen. 25:1-4). Now as Jacob's posterity insisted on being representative (as shown just above n. 4290), they could not represent as Jacob, nor as Isaac, nor as Abraham. That they could not as Jacob was because Jacob represented the external of the church, but not its internal; and they could not as Isaac at the same time, nor as Abraham at the same time, for the reason just adduced.
 There was therefore no other way by which they could represent the church than by a new name being given to Jacob, and thereby a new quality; which new quality should signify the internal spiritual man, or what is the same, the internal spiritual church. This new quality is "Israel." Every church of the Lord is internal and external, as has been repeatedly shown. The internal church is what is represented, and the external is what represents. Moreover the internal church is either spiritual or celestial. The internal spiritual church was represented by Israel, and the internal celestial church was afterwards represented by Judah. Therefore also a division was made, and the Israelites were a kingdom by themselves, and the Jews were a kingdom by themselves; but on this subject of the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter. Hence it is evident that Jacob (that is, the posterity of Jacob) could not represent a church as Jacob, for this would be to represent only the external of a church; but must also do so as Israel, because "Israel" is the internal.
 That the internal is what is represented, and the external what represents, has been shown before, and may likewise be seen from man himself. Man's speech represents his thought, and his action represents his will. Speech and action are man's externals, and thought and will are his internals. Furthermore, man's face itself, by its varying looks, represents both his thought and his will. That the face by its looks represents, is known to everyone; for with the sincere their interior states may be seen from the looks of the face. In a word, all things of the body represent what is of the animus and of the mind.
 The case is similar with the externals of the church, for these are like a body, and the internals are like a soul - as the altars and the sacrifices upon them, which as is known were external things; in like manner the showbreads; also the lampstand with its lights; and likewise the perpetual fire: that these represented internal things may be known to everyone; and it is the same with the rest of the rites. That these external things could not represent external but internal things, is evident from what has been adduced. Thus Jacob could not represent as Jacob, because "Jacob" is the external of the church; but Jacob could represent as Israel, because "Israel" is its internal. This is what is meant by the new quality given in order that the posterity of Jacob might represent.