8232. There was not left of them even one. That this signifies all and each, is evident without explication. In this verse the subject treated of is the immersion or casting into hell of those who have been in falsities from evil. But what immersion and casting into hell are, is known to few, it being supposed that it is a casting down into a certain place where is the devil with his crew, who torment those who are there. But such is not the case with this matter. Casting into hell is nothing else than a crowding by mere falsities which are from evil, in which evil they had been when in the world. When they have been crowded there by these falsities, they are in hell, and the evils and falsities in which they then are, torment them. But the torment does not arise from their grieving at the evil which they have done, but from their not being able to do evil, which is the delight of their life; for when they do evil to others in hell, they are punished and tormented by those to whom they do it. They chiefly do evil to one another from the cupidity of exercising command, and of subjugating others with this end in view, which is done (if others do not suffer themselves to be subjugated) by a thousand methods of punishments and torments. But the lordships there, which they continually aspire to, take turns, those who had punished and tormented others being subsequently punished and tormented by these others; and this until at last this kind of ardor abates from the fear of the penalty. From all this it can now be seen whence comes hell, and what hell is. The fire of hell is nothing else than concupiscence originating in the love of self, which inflames and torments (n. 6314, 7324, 7575).