8314. Then were the chiefs of Edom dismayed. That this signifies the like with those who are in a life of evil from the love of self, is evident from the signification of "the chiefs," as being the principal ones, thus all and each (of which below); and from the representation of Edom, as being those who from the evil of the love of self readily learn falsities and reject truths, and in the sense abstracted from person, as being the evil of the love of self to which falsity is adjoined and from which truth is rejected, thus also those who are in a life of evil from this love, namely, from the love of self. As regards these "chiefs," by them are signified the principal ones; in the sense abstracted from person, the principal things, thus all things and each; for when "the chiefs" are mentioned, general things are signified, under which are the rest, or the principal things; as for instance the "tertian captains" (n. 8150, 8276); and they are predicated of good, and in the opposite sense of evil; while by "princes" are also signified general things under which are the rest, or primary things (n. 1482, 2089, 5044), but these are predicated of truth.
 Be it known that in the Word there are words that belong to the class of spiritual things, and words that belong to the class of celestial things; that is, there are those which express such things as belong to truth or faith, and those which express such things as belong to good or love. There are also words which are predicated of both. He who knows these things can know from the first view or reading of the Word, especially in its original tongue, where in the internal sense it treats of such things as are of truth, or of such things as are of good. The case is so with the signification of "princes," and of "chiefs;" "princes" signify primary things, and are predicated of the truths of faith; but "chiefs" signify principal things, and are predicated of the good of love. In the opposite sense, "princes" are predicated of the falsities of faith, and "chiefs" of the evils of love.
 From this it is that those who reigned in Edom were called "chiefs" (Gen. 36:15-21, 29, 30, 40-43). The reason is that by "Edom" was signified the good of celestial love, and in the opposite sense the evil of the love of self; but with the sons of Ishmael, those who presided over the rest were not called "chiefs," but "princes" (Gen. 25:16), because by "Ishmael" were signified those who are in truth (n. 3263, 3268, 4747). For this reason also those were called "princes" who presided in Israel (Num. 7:2, 10, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54), for by Israel were represented those who are in the truth and good of faith. But those who presided over Judah were called "chiefs," because by Judah were represented those who are in the good of love, as in Zechariah:
Let him be as a chief in Judah (9:7).
The chiefs of Judah shall say in their heart, I will confirm to me the inhabitants of Jerusalem in Jehovah Zebaoth their God; in that day I will make the chiefs of Judah like a furnace of fire in pieces of wood (12:5, 6).