8337. And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand. That this signifies glorification of the Lord from the good of faith, is evident from the representation of Miriam, as being the good of faith; for Moses represents the truth of faith which proceeds immediately from the Lord, thus internal truth; while Aaron represents the truth of faith which proceeds mediately from the Lord, thus external truth (see n. 7009, 7089, 7382); consequently "Miriam" denotes the good of faith which proceeds mediately from the Lord; for when men represent truth, their women represent good (n. 6014). As Miriam with the women represent external good, therefore it is added "the sister of Aaron," and it is not said "the sister of Moses." Moreover good and truth are circumstanced like sister and brother (n. 3160). But be it known that women represent good, and men truth, when the spiritual church is treated of; whereas women represent truth, and men good, when the celestial church is treated of (n. 4823). From the signification of "the prophetess," as being one who teaches (n. 2534, 7269), here who praises the Lord, or what is the same, glorifies Him from the good of faith, because she sang to Jehovah, as Moses and the men of Israel had done (that "to sing" denotes to glorify, see n. 8261, 8263, 8267); and from the signification of "taking a timbrel in the hand," as being to glorify from the good of faith, for a "timbrel" is predicated of spiritual good, or what is the same, of the good of faith (n. 4138).
 Formerly in Divine worship many kinds of musical instruments were employed, but with much distinction. In general, by wind instruments were expressed affections of good, and by stringed instruments affections of truth, and this from the correspondence of every sounding thing with the affections. It is known that some natural affections are expressed by certain kinds of musical instruments, and others by certain other ones, and that when a fitting harmony joins in accord, they actually excite these affections. They who are skilled in music are aware of these things, and make an accordant use of them. The cause of this fact arises from the very nature of sound and of its accord with the affections. Men learned this at first, not from science and art, but from the hearing and its exquisite sense: from this it is clear that it does not come from any origin in the natural world, but from an origin in the spiritual world, and accordingly from the correspondence with things in the spiritual world of those things in the natural world which flow from order. Harmonious sound and its varieties correspond to states of joy and gladness in the spiritual world; and states of joy and gladness there arise from the affections, which in that world are affections of good and truth. From this then it can be seen that musical instruments correspond to the delights and pleasantnesses of spiritual and celestial affections, and that some instruments correspond to celestial affections, and some to spiritual affections (see what has been said and shown before on this subject, n. 418-420, 4138).
 As regards the timbrel specifically, it corresponds to spiritual good, that is, to the good of truth. The reason is that the timbrel is not a stringed instrument, neither is it a wind instrument, but as it is made with a skin, it is as it were a continuous stringed instrument, and moreover its sound is graver and deeper than is the sound of stringed instruments. This can also be seen from the Word, where the "timbrel" is mentioned, as in Isaiah:
The joy of the timbrels shall cease, the tumult of the joyous shall cease, the joy of the harp shall cease (24:8);
"the joy of the timbrels" denotes the delights of the affections of the good of faith; "the joy of the harp," the delight of the affection of the truth of faith. In Jeremiah:
Anew I will build thee, that thou shalt be built, O virgin of Israel; anew shalt thou adorn thy timbrels, and shalt go forth into the dance of them that play (31:4);
"to adorn the timbrels" denotes to glorify God from spiritual good, for it treats of the spiritual church, which is the "virgin of Israel."
 In like manner in Ezekiel:
Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God, the work of thy timbrels and of thy pipes was in thee, in the day that thou wast created they were prepared (28:13);
speaking of Tyre, by which are signified the knowledges of good and of truth, and by "timbrels and pipes" the affections of the former, and the joys of the latter. In David:
They have seen Thy goings, O God, the goings of my God in the sanctuary. The singers went before, after them the players, in the midst of the virgins playing on timbrels (Ps. 68:24, 25).
Shout to the God of Jacob, lift up a song, and give a timbrel, a pleasant harp with a psaltery (Ps. 81:1, 2).
Sing to Jehovah a new song, let them praise His name in the dance, let them sing psalms to Him with timbrel and harp (Ps. 149:1, 3);
here "to praise with timbrel" denotes to glorify from the delight of the affection of the good of faith; and "to praise with harp" denotes the pleasantness of the affection of the truth of faith.
 In the same:
Praise ye God with timbrel and dance, praise ye Him with stringed instruments and organ, praise Him with cymbals of sound, praise Him with cymbals of noise (Ps. 150:4, 5);
"to praise with timbrel and dance" denotes from the good and truth of faith; "with stringed instruments and organ" denotes from truths and the good thence derived. As by correspondence all instruments signified the delights and pleasantnesses of spiritual and celestial affections, many of the Psalms of David have an inscription, and it is told how they are to be sung, as "upon Neginoth," "upon Nechiloth," "upon the Octave," "Shigajon," "Gitthith," "Muth-labben," "Sheminith," "Shoshannim," "Machalath."