8339. With timbrels and with dances. That this signifies celebration from joy and gladness, is evident from the signification of "timbrel," as being predicated of the affection of spiritual good, or of the good of truth, and as signifying its delight or joy (of which just above, n. 8337); and from the signification of "dance," as being predicated of the affection of spiritual truth, and as signifying its pleasantness or gladness (of which below). In ancient times gladness of heart was attested not only by musical instruments and songs, but also by dances. For joys of the heart, or interior joys, burst forth in the body into various acts, as into songs, and also into dances. And as in ancient times the gladnesses which excelled all others were spiritual gladnesses, that is, were from the affections of spiritual loves, which were those of good and truth, therefore also it was then allowed to add dances to the songs and musical harmonies, and in these ways also to testify joy. It is from this that "dances" are mentioned in the Word, and by them are signified gladnesses of the affections of truth or of faith, from good or charity, as in these passages:
Anew thou shalt adorn thy timbrels, and shalt go forth into the dance of the players. Their soul shall become as a watered garden, and they shall not grieve any more at all; then shall the virgin rejoice in the dance, and the young men and the old together (Jer. 31:4, 12, 13).
The joy of our heart shall cease, our dance is turned into mourning (Lam. 5:15).
Thou hast turned for me my mourning into dancing (Ps. 30:11).
Let them praise His name in the dance, let them sing psalms to Him with timbrel and harp (Ps. 149:3; 150:4).
That the Gentiles also in their divine worship played and danced, is evident in Exod. 32:6, 19.
 Both "joy" and "gladness" are mentioned, because in the Word "joy" is predicated of good, and "gladness" of truth, consequently it is very often said in the Word "joy and gladness," both together, as in these passages:
Behold joy and gladness, slaying oxen (Isa. 22:13).
They shall obtain joy and gladness, and sadness and sighing shall flee away (Isa. 35:10).
Joy and gladness shall be found in Zion, confession and the voice of singing (Isa. 51:3, 11).
The voice of joy and the voice of gladness, and the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride (Jer. 33:11).
The fast of the tenth month shall be to the house of Judah for joy and gladness (Zech. 8:19).
Thou shalt make me to hear joy and gladness (Ps. 51:8).
As in these passages "joy" is predicated of good, and "gladness" of truth, both are mentioned, otherwise one word would have sufficed. Such is the holy way of speaking that is in the Word, to the end that in every detail there may be the heavenly marriage, that is, the marriage of good and truth (n. 683, 793, 801, 2173, 2516, 2712, 4138, 5138, 5502, 7945).