9990. Take one bullock, a son of the herd. That this signifies the purification of the natural or external man, is evident from the signification of a "bullock," as being the good of innocence and of charity in the natural or external man (see n. 9391). And because it is said "a son of the herd," there is signified also the truth of this good, for a "son" denotes truth, and a "herd," the natural. (That a "son" denotes truth, see n. 489, 491, 533, 2623, 3373, 9807; and that a "herd" denotes the natural, n. 2566, 5913, 8937.) That by a "bullock, a son of the herd" is here signified the purification of the natural or external man, is because it was sacrificed, and by sacrifices was signified purification from evils and falsities, or expiation, here purification from the evils and falsities which are in the natural or external man. But purification in the spiritual or internal man is signified by the "burnt-offering of the ram."
 In order to know what the burnt-offerings and sacrifices severally represented, it must be known that there is in man an external and also an internal, and that in each of these there is what relates to truth and what relates to good; and therefore when a man is to be regenerated, he must be regenerated as to the external and as to the internal, and in both as to truth and as to good. But before a man can be regenerated, he must be purified from evils and falsities, for these stand in the way. The purifications of the external man were represented by burnt-offerings and sacrifices of oxen, bullocks, and he-goats; and the purifications of the internal man by burnt-offerings and sacrifices of rams, kids, and she-goats; but the purification of the internal itself, which is the inmost, by burnt-offerings and sacrifices of lambs; and therefore what particular purification or expiation was represented can be seen from the animals themselves that were sacrificed.
 It is said what purification or expiation was "represented," because the burnt-offerings and sacrifices did not purify or expiate man, but only represented purification or expiation; for who is not able to know that such things do not take away anything of the evil and falsity with a man? (See the passages cited from the Word in n. 2180.) That they did not take away, but only represented, was because with the Israelitish and Jewish nation there was instituted the representative of a church, through which conjunction was effected with the heavens, and through the heavens with the Lord (on which subject see what was shown in the places cited above, n. 9320 end, 9380). But what was specifically represented by the burnt-offerings and sacrifices of bullocks, rams, and lambs, will be seen later in this chapter, for these are there treated of.