474. Verse 5. And the angel whom I saw standing upon the sea and the earth, lifted up his hand to heaven, (verse 6), and swore by Him that liveth for ages of ages, signifies the attestation and testification of the Lord by Himself. By "the angel standing upon the sea and the earth" is meant the Lord (n. 470); by "lifting his hand up to heaven" is signified this attestation, that "there should be time no longer" (verse 6); by "swearing" is signified this testification, that "in the days of the voice of the seventh angel the mystery of God should be finished (verse 7); by "Him that liveth for ages of ages" is meant the Lord Himself, as above (chapters 1:18; 4:9, 10; 5:14; Daniel 4:34). That the Lord testifies by himself will be seen presently. From what has been said, it is evident, that by these words, "and the angel whom I saw standing upon the sea and the earth, lifted up his hand to heaven, and swore by Him that liveth for ages of ages" is signified the attestation and testification of the Lord by himself.
 That Jehovah swears, that is, testifies, by Himself is evident from these passages:
I have sworn by Myself, the word hath gone out of My mouth which shall not be recalled (Isa. 45:23).
I have sworn by Myself, that this house shall be a desolation (Jer. 22:5).
Jehovah hath sworn by His soul (Jer. 51:14; Amos 6:8).
Jehovah hath sworn by His holiness (Amos 4:2).
Jehovah hath sworn by His right hand, and by the arm of His strength (Isa. 62:8).
Behold, I have sworn by My great name (Jer. 44:26).
Jehovah, that is, the Lord, "swearing by Himself" signifies that the Divine truth testifies, for He is the Divine truth itself, and thus testifies from itself and by itself. Besides which, that "Jehovah swears" may also be seen in Isaiah 14:24; 54:9; Psalms 89:3, 35; 95:11; 110:4; 132:11. It is said that "Jehovah hath sworn" because the church instituted among the sons of Israel was a representative church, and the Lord's conjunction with the church was thence represented by a covenant, such as is made between two who swear to their compact; therefore, because an oath was a part of the covenant, it is said that "Jehovah swore"; by which, nevertheless, it is not meant that He swore, but that the Divine truth testifies it.
 That an oath was a part of a covenant, appears from these passages:
I have sworn unto thee, and entered into a covenant, and thou shouldest be Mine (Ezek. 16:8).
To remember the covenant, the oath which he swore (Luke 1:72-73; Ps. 105:9; Jer. 11:5; 32:22; Deut. 1:34; 10:11; 11:9, 21; 26:3, 15; 31:20; 34:4).
As a covenant was a representative of the conjunction of the Lord with the church, and, reciprocally, of the church with the Lord; and as the oath was a part of the covenant, and man was to swear from the truth therein, thus also by it, therefore the sons of Israel were permitted to swear by Jehovah, and thus by the Divine truth (Exodus 20:7; Leviticus 19:12; Deuteronomy 6:13; 10:20; Isaiah 48:1; 65:16; Jeremiah 4:2; Zechariah 5:4); but after the representatives of the church were abrogated, the oaths of a covenant were also abrogated by the Lord (Matthew 5:33-37; 23:16-22).