64. The reason why "Jerusalem" means the church as to doctrine, is that there and at no other place in the land of Canaan were the temple and altar, the offering of sacrifices, and therefore the Divine worship; and for this reason the three yearly feasts were celebrated there, to which every male in the whole country was commanded to go. This is why "Jerusalem" signifies the church in respect to worship, and therefore as to doctrine-for worship is prescribed in doctrine, and is performed according to it. An additional reason is that the Lord was present in Jerusalem, and taught in its temple, and afterwards glorified His Human there. Besides, "city" in the spiritual sense of the Word signifies doctrine, and therefore "holy city" signifies the doctrine of Divine truth from the Lord.*
 That by "Jerusalem" is meant the church as to doctrine, is further evident from other passages in the Word, as from these:
For Zion's sake I will not hold my peace, and for Jerusalem's sake I will not rest, until the righteousness thereof go forth as brightness, and the salvation thereof as a lamp that burneth. Then shall the nations see thy righteousness, and all kings thy glory and thou shalt be called by a new name, which the mouth of Jehovah shall name; and thou shalt be a crown of ornament in the hand of Jehovah, and a kingdom's diadem in the hand of thy God for Jehovah shall delight in thee, and thy land shall be married. Behold, thy salvation cometh; behold, His reward is with Him and they shall call them the holy people, the redeemed of Jehovah and thou shalt be called, A city sought out, not forsaken (Isa. 62:1-4, 11, 12).
This whole chapter treats of the Lord's advent, and of a New Church to be set up by Him. This New Church is here meant by "Jerusalem called by a new name which the mouth of Jehovah shall name," and which shall be "a crown of ornament in the hand of Jehovah, and a kingdom's diadem in the hand of God," and in which Jehovah shall "delight," and which shall be called "a city sought out, not forsaken." These words cannot possibly mean the Jerusalem in which were the Jews at the time of the Lord's coming into the world, for that city was of a wholly contrary character, and might rather be called Sodom, as indeed it is called in Rev. 11:8; Isa. 3:9; Jer. 23:14; Ezek. 16:46, 48.
 Again in Isaiah:
Behold, I create a new heaven and a new earth, and the former shall not be remembered: be ye glad and rejoice to eternities in that which I create for behold I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, and her people a gladness, that I may rejoice over Jerusalem, and be glad over My people. Then shall the wolf and the lamb feed together; they shall not do harm in all the mountain of My holiness (65:17-19, 25).
This chapter also treats of the Lord's advent, and of a church to be set up anew by Him. This church was not set up anew among those who were in Jerusalem, but among those outside of it, so that it is this church which is meant by the Jerusalem that should be to the Lord a rejoicing, and whose people should be to Him a gladness, and where also the wolf and the lamb should feed together, and where they should do no harm. Here, too, it is said, just as in the Revelation, that the Lord will "create a new heaven and a new earth," the meaning being similar; and it is added that He will "create Jerusalem."
 In another place in Isaiah:
Awake! awake! put on thy strength, O Zion; put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city, for henceforth there shall no more come into thee the uncircumcised and the unclean. Shake thyself from the dust, arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem. My people shall know [cognoscet] My name in that day, for I am He that doth speak, behold it is I. Jehovah hath comforted His people; He hath redeemed Jerusalem (52:1, 2, 6, 9).
This chapter also treats of the Lord's advent, and of the church to be set up anew by Him; so that by the Jerusalem into which the uncircumcised and the unclean should no more come, and which the Lord should redeem, is meant the church; and by "Jerusalem the holy city," the church as to doctrine from the Lord.  In Zephaniah:
Shout, O daughter of Zion; be glad with all the heart, O daughter of Jerusalem; the King of Israel is in the midst of thee; fear evil no longer: He will be glad over thee with joy, He will rest in thy love, He will exult over thee with a shout: I will make you a name and a praise to all the people of the earth (3:14-17, 20).
Here in like manner it treats of the Lord and of a church from Him, over which "the King of Israel" (who is the Lord) will be glad with joy, will exult with a shout, and in whose love He will rest, and whose members He will make a name and a praise to all people of the earth.
 In Isaiah:
Thus saith Jehovah thy Redeemer, and thy Former, saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be inhabited; and to the cities of Judah, Ye shall be built (44:24, 26).
Know [Scito] and perceive that from the going forth of the word even to the restoring and the building up of Jerusalem, even to Messiah the Prince, shall be seven weeks (9:25).
It is evident that here also "Jerusalem" means the church, because this was indeed restored and built by the Lord, but not the Jerusalem that was the residence of the Jews.
 "Jerusalem" means a church from the Lord in the following passages also. In Zechariah:
Thus saith Jehovah, I will return to Zion, and I will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem whence Jerusalem shall be called the city of truth; and the mountain of Jehovah Zebaoth, the mountain of holiness (8:3, 20-23).
Then shall ye know that I am Jehovah your God, dwelling in Zion, the mountain of holiness; and Jerusalem shall be holiness: and it shall come to pass in that day that the mountains shall drop new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and Jerusalem shall abide from generation to generation (3:17-20).
In that day shall the shoot of Jehovah be for ornament and glory and it shall come to pass that he that is left in Zion, and he that remaineth in Jerusalem shall be called holy; even every one that is written for life in Jerusalem (4:2, 3).
In the latter days it shall come to pass that the mountain of the house of Jehovah shall be established in the head of the mountains; for doctrine shall go forth out of Zion, and the word of Jehovah from Jerusalem: unto thee shall come the former kingdom, the kingdom of the daughter of Jerusalem (4:1, 2, 8).
At that time they shall call Jerusalem the throne of Jehovah and all nations shall be gathered to the name of Jehovah to Jerusalem; neither shall they walk any more after the confirmation of their evil heart (3:17).
Look upon Zion the city of our set feast; thine eyes shall see Jerusalem a quiet habitation, a tabernacle that shall not be scattered not one of the stakes thereof shall ever be removed, neither shall any of the cords thereof be plucked away (33:20).
Besides other passages, as Isa. 24:23; 37:32; 66:10-14; Zech. 12:3, 6, 8, 9, 10; 14:8, 11, 12, 21; Mal. 3:1, 4; Ps. 122:1-7; 137:5, 6.
 That in these passages "Jerusalem" means the church which was to be set up anew by the Lord, and which actually was set up anew by Him, and not the Jerusalem in the land of Canaan that was inhabited by the Jews, is evident from those passages in the Word where it is said of the latter Jerusalem that it should utterly perish and be destroyed; as Jer. 5:1; 6:6, 7; 7:17, 20, etc.; 8:5-7, etc.; 9:10, 11, 13, etc.; 13:9, 10, 14; 14:16; Lam. 1:8, 9, 15, 17; Ezek. 4:1 to end; 5:9 to end; 12:18, 19; 15:6-8; 16:1 to end; 23:1-49; Matt. 23:33, 37, 39; Luke 19:41-44; 21:20-22; 23:28-30; and in many other places.
* That by "city" in the Word is signified the doctrine of the church and of religion, may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia (n. 402, 2449, 2943, 3216, 4492, 4493). That by the gate of a city is signified the doctrine by means of which there is entrance into the church (n. 2943, 4477, 4478). That on this account the elders sat in the gate of the city, and judged, ibid. That "to go out of the gate" is to fall back from doctrine (n. 4492, 4493). That in heaven cities and palaces are presented representatively when angels and spirits are conversing about doctrinal matters (n. 3216).