9954. And thou shalt anoint them. That this signifies a representative of the Lord as to the good of love, is evident from the signification of "anointing," as being inauguration to represent (see n. 9474). That it denotes inauguration to represent the Lord as to the good of love, or what is similar, to represent the good of love which is from the Lord, is because by the oil wherewith the anointing was done is signified the good of love (n. 886, 4582, 4638, 9780). It is important to know about this, because anointing has remained in use from ancient time to the present day; for kings are anointed; and anointing is accounted holy at the present day in like manner as it was formerly. Among the ancients, when all external worship was performed by means of representatives, that is, by such things as represented the interior things of faith and love from the Lord and to Him, thus such as are Divine, anointing was instituted for the reason that the oil with which the anointing was done, signified the good of love; for they knew that the good of love was that essential thing from which all things of the church and of worship live, because it is the being of life. For the Divine flows in with a man through the good of love, and makes his life, indeed that heavenly life in which truths are received in good. From this it is plain what anointing represented. Wherefore the things which were anointed were called holy, and were also accounted as holy, and were of service to the church for representing Divine and heavenly things, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself who is good itself, thus for representing the good of love which is from Him, and also the truth of faith insofar as it lives from the good of love. From this then it was that at that time they anointed stones that were set up for pillars; also weapons of war, such as shields and bucklers; and afterward the altar and all its vessels; likewise the Tent of meeting, and all things therein; and moreover, those who administered the priesthood, and their garments; likewise prophets, and lastly kings, who from this were called "the anointed of Jehovah." It also became customary to anoint themselves and others, in order to testify gladness of mind and goodwill.
 As regards the first point: That they anointed stones erected for pillars, this is evident in the book of Genesis:
Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had placed for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the head of it (Gen. 28:18).
The reason why they anointed stones in this manner was that "stones" signified truths, and truths without good have no life of heaven within them, that is, no life from the Divine. But when the stones were anointed with oil, they represented truths from good, and in the supreme sense the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord's Divine good, thus the Lord Himself, who from this was called "the Stone of Israel" (n. 6426). (That "stones" denote truths, see n. 643, 1298, 3720, 3769, 3771, 3773, 3789, 3798, 6426, 8941, 9476; in like manner "pillars," n. 3727, 4580, 9388, 9389; and that "to anoint pillars" denotes to cause truths to be from good, thus to be truths of good, consequently goods, see n. 3728, 4090, 4582.) That stones erected for pillars were afterward accounted holy, is evident from the same chapter of Genesis, where it is said:
Jacob called the name of that place Bethel, and said, If I return in peace to my father's house, this stone, which I have set up for a pillar, shall be God's house (Gen. 28:19-22).
"Bethel" means "the house of God," and "the house of God" denotes the church, and also heaven, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself (n. 3720).
 Secondly: That they anointed the weapons of war, such as shields and bucklers, is evident in these passages:
Rise up, ye Princes, anoint the shield (Isa. 21:5).
The shield of the heroes was defiled, the shield of Saul not anointed with oil (2 Sam. 1:21).
The reason why weapons of war were anointed, was that they signified truths fighting against falsities; and truths from good are what prevail against falsities; but not truths without good. Wherefore weapons of war represented the truths that proceed from the good which is from the Lord, thus the truths by means of which the Lord Himself in men fights for them against falsities from evil, that is, against the hells. (That "weapons of war" denote truths that fight against falsities, see n. 1788, 2686; for in the Word "war" signifies spiritual combat, see n. 1664, 2686, 8273, 8295; and "enemies" signify the hells, and in general, evils and falsities, n. 2851, 8289, 9314.)
 Thirdly: That they anointed the altar and all its vessels, also the Tent of meeting and all the things therein, is evident in the following passages:
Jehovah said unto Moses, Thou shalt anoint the altar and sanctify it (Exod. 29:36).
Thou shalt make an anointing oil of holiness with which thou shalt anoint the Tent of meeting, and the ark of the Testimony, and the table and all the vessels thereof, and the lampstand and all the vessels thereof, and the altar of incense, and the altar of burnt-offering and all the vessels thereof, and the laver and the base thereof. Thus thou shalt sanctify them, that they may be holy of holies; whosoever toucheth them shall sanctify himself (Exod. 30:25-29).
Thou shalt take the anointing oil, and anoint the Habitation, and all that is therein, and thou shalt sanctify it, and all the vessels thereof, that they may be holy. And thou shalt anoint the altar of burnt-offering, and all its vessels, and thou shalt sanctify the altar, that the altar may be holy of holies. And thou shalt anoint the laver and its base, and shalt sanctify it (Exod. 40:9-11).
Moses anointed the Habitation and all that was therein; and he sprinkled of the oil upon the altar and all its vessels, and the laver and its base, to sanctify them (Lev. 8:10-12; Num. 7:1).
 The reason why the altar, and the Habitation with all things therein, were anointed, was that they might represent the Divine and holy things of heaven and of the church, consequently the holy things of worship; and they could not represent these things unless they had been inaugurated by means of something that represented the good of love; for the Divine enters through the good of love, and through this good is present in heaven and in the church, consequently also in worship. Without this good the Divine does not enter, and is not present, but what is man's own, and with this, hell; and when hell is present, evil and falsity are present; for man's own is nothing else. From this it is evident why the anointing was done with oil; for in the representative sense "oil" denotes the good of love (see n. 886, 4582, 4638, 9780); and the altar was the chief representative of the Lord, and from this of worship from the good of love (n. 2777, 2811, 4489, 4541, 8935, 8940, 9388, 9389, 9714); and the Habitation together with the ark was the chief representative of heaven where the Lord is (n. 9457, 9481, 9485, 9594, 9596, 9632, 9784). (That what is man's own is nothing but evil and falsity, thus hell, see n. 210, 215, 694, 874-876, 987, 1047, 3812, 5660, 8480, 8941, 8944; also that insofar as what is man's own is removed, so far the Lord can be present, n. 1023, 1044, 4007.)
 Fourthly: That they anointed those who administered the priesthood, and their garments, is evident in Moses:
Take thou the anointing oil, and pour it upon the head of Aaron, and anoint him (Exod. 29:7; 30:30).
Thou shalt put on Aaron the holy garments; and thou shalt anoint him, and sanctify him, that he may minister to Me in the priest's office; and thou shalt anoint his sons, as thou didst anoint their father; and it shall be that their anointing shall be to them for the priesthood of an age in their generations (Exod. 40:13-15).
Moses poured of the oil upon Aaron's head, and anointed him, to sanctify him. Then he took of the anointing oil, and of the blood which was upon the altar, and sprinkled it upon Aaron, upon his garments, upon his sons, and upon his sons' garments with him; and sanctified Aaron, his garments, and his sons, and his sons' garments with him (Lev. 8:12, 30).
 The reason why Aaron was anointed, and why his sons were anointed, and even their garments, was that they might represent the Lord as to Divine good, and as to the Divine truth thence derived; Aaron, the Lord as to Divine good; and his sons, the Lord as to the Divine truth thence derived; and in general, that the priesthood might represent the Lord as to the whole work of salvation. The reason why they were anointed in his garments (Exod. 29:29) was that Aaron's garments represented the Lord's spiritual kingdom joined to His celestial kingdom. The celestial kingdom is where the good of love to the Lord from the Lord reigns; so that the influx of the Divine into the spiritual kingdom is effected through the good of love. On this account the inauguration into representation was effected with oil, which in the spiritual sense denotes the good of love. (That Aaron represented the Lord as to Divine good may be seen above, n. 9806; and that his sons represented the Lord as to Divine truth proceeding from Divine good, n. 9807; also that the priesthood in general represented the Lord as to the whole work of salvation, n. 9809; that Aaron's garments represented the Lord's spiritual kingdom joined to His celestial kingdom, n. 9814; that his sons' garments represented the things which proceed therefrom, n. 9946, 9950; and that in the celestial kingdom the good of love to the Lord reigns, see the places cited in n. 9277.)
 As the inauguration into representation was effected by anointing, and as by Aaron and his sons were represented the Lord and that which is from Him, therefore to Aaron and his sons were given the holy things of the sons of Israel that were given to Jehovah as gifts, and were called "heave-offerings;" and it is said that they are an anointing, and likewise stand for an anointing; that is, that they are a representation, or stand for a representation, of the Lord; and that they are from Him; as is evident from these words in Moses:
The wave-breast and the heave-shoulder have I taken from among the sons of Israel from the sacrifices of the peace- offerings, and have given them unto Aaron and unto his sons. This is the anointing of Aaron, and the anointing of his sons, from the offerings of Jehovah made by fire, which I have commanded to be given unto them in the day that he anointed them from among the sons of Israel (Lev. 7:34-36).
Jehovah spoke unto Aaron, Behold I have given thee the charge of My heave-offerings, in respect to all the holy things of the sons of Israel; unto thee have I given them by reason of the anointing, and to thy sons, in a statute of eternity. Every offering of theirs, in respect to all their meat-offering, in respect to all sacrifice for sin and for guilt, all the wave offering of the sons of Israel, all the fat of the pure oil, and all the fat of the new wine, and of the grain, the firstfruits of them which they shall give unto Jehovah; to thee have I given them; also everything devoted in Israel; everything that openeth the womb; thus all the heave-offering of the holy things. Thou shalt have no inheritance in their land, neither shalt thou have any portion in the midst of them. I am thy portion and thine inheritance in the midst of the sons of Israel (Num. 18:8-20).
From these words it is evident that "anointing" denotes representation, because they were inaugurated into representation by means of anointing; and that by it was signified that all inauguration into the holiness of heaven and of the church is through the good of love which is from the Lord, and that the good of love is the Lord with them. Because it is so, it is said that "Jehovah is his portion and inheritance."
 Fifthly: That they anointed the prophets also, is evident from the following passages:
Jehovah said unto Elijah, Anoint Hazael to be king over the Syrians; and anoint Jehu to be king over Israel; and anoint Elisha to be prophet in thy room (1 Kings 19:15, 16).
The Spirit of the Lord Jehovih is upon Me; therefore Jehovah hath anointed Me to preach good tiding unto the poor; He hath sent Me to bind up the broken-hearted, to preach liberty to the captives (Isa. 61:1).
The reason why the prophets were anointed was that they represented the Lord in respect to the doctrine of Divine truth, consequently in respect to the Word, for this is the doctrine of Divine truth. That the prophets represented the Word, see n. 3652, 7269, specifically Elijah and Elisha, n. 2762, 5247, 9372. And that it is the Lord as to the Divine Human who is represented, and who is therefore meant by "him whom Jehovah hath anointed," the Lord Himself teaches in Luke 4:18-21.  Sixthly: That afterward they anointed the kings, who were then called "the anointed of Jehovah," is evident from many passages in the Word (as 1 Sam. 10:1; 15:1; 16:3, 6, 12; 24:6; 26:9, 11, 16; 2 Sam. 1:16; 2:4, 7; 5:3; 19:21; 1 Kings 1:34-35; 19:15, 16; 2 Kings 9:3; 11:12; 23:30; Lam. 4:20; Hab. 3:13; Ps. 2:2, 6; 20:6; 28:8; 45:7; 84:9; 89:20, 38, 51; 132:17; and elsewhere). The reason why they anointed the kings was that these might represent the Lord in respect to judgment from Divine truth; therefore in the Word by "kings" are signified truths Divine (see n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 5068, 6148).
 The reason why the kings were called "the anointed of Jehovah," and why it was therefore sacrilegious to injure them, was that by "the anointed of Jehovah" is meant the Lord as to the Divine Human; although according to the sense of the letter the term is applied to a king who was anointed with oil. For when the Lord was in the world, He was, in respect to the Human, the Divine truth itself; and in respect to the very being of His life, He was the Divine good itself, which with man is called the soul from the father; for He was conceived from Jehovah, and in the Word "Jehovah" denotes the Divine good of the Divine love, which is the being of the life of all. From this it is that the Lord alone was "the Anointed of Jehovah" in very essence and in very performance, because the Divine good was in Him; and the Divine truth proceeding from this good was in His Human while He was in the world (see the places cited in n. 9194, 9315). The kings of the earth, however, were not "the Anointed of Jehovah," but they represented the Lord, who alone is "the Anointed of Jehovah;" and therefore on account of this anointing it was sacrilegious to injure the kings of the earth. But the anointing of the kings of the earth was done with oil, while the anointing of the Lord as to the Divine Human was done with the Divine good itself of the Divine love, which the oil represented. From this it is that He was called "the Messiah," and "the Christ," "Messiah" in the Hebrew tongue meaning "the Anointed," in like manner as "Christ" in the Greek tongue (John 1:41; 4:25).
 From all this it can be seen that where mention is made in the Word of "the anointed of Jehovah," the Lord is meant, as in Isaiah:
The Spirit of the Lord Jehovih is upon Me; therefore Jehovah hath anointed Me to preach good tidings unto the poor; He hath sent Me to bind up the broken hearted, to preach liberty to the captives (Isa. 61:1).
That the Lord as to the Divine Human is the one whom Jehovah anointed is evident in Luke, where the Lord openly says so in these passages:
There was delivered to Jesus the book of the prophet Isaiah. And He unrolled the book, and found the place where it was written, The Spirit of the Lord is upon me; wherefore He hath anointed Me to preach good tidings to the poor; He hath sent Me to heal the broken hearted, to preach release to the bound, and sight to the blind, to send away the wounded with deliverance, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord. Afterward, rolling up the book, He gave it to the minister, and sat down. And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on Him. And He began to say unto them, This day hath this Scripture been fulfilled in your ears (Luke 4:17-21).
 Know therefore and perceive, that from the going forth of the Word even to restore and to build Jerusalem, even unto the Messiah the prince, shall be seven weeks (Dan. 9:25).
"To build Jerusalem" denotes to set up the church, for "Jerusalem" denotes the church (n. 3654); "Messiah the prince," or "the Anointed" denotes the Lord as to the Divine Human. Again:
Seventy weeks have been decreed, to seal up the vision and the prophet, and to anoint the Holy of holies (Dan. 9:24).
"Sealing up the vision and the prophet" denotes to close up the things that have been said in the Word about the Lord, and to fulfill them; "to anoint the Holy of holies" denotes the Divine Human of the Lord, in which was the Divine good of the Divine love, that is, Jehovah.
 By "the Anointed of Jehovah" is also meant the Lord in the following passage:
The kings of the earth have set themselves, and the rulers have consulted together, against Jehovah, and against His Anointed. I have anointed My king upon Zion, the mountain of My holiness (Ps. 2:2, 6).
"The kings of the earth" denote falsities, and "the rulers," evils, which are from the hells, and against which the Lord fought when He was in the world, and which He conquered and subdued; "the Anointed of Jehovah" denotes the Lord as to the Divine Human, for from this He fought; "Zion the mountain of holiness," upon which He is said "to be Anointed as the King" denotes the celestial kingdom, which is in the good of love. This kingdom is the inmost of heaven, and the inmost of the church.
I have found David My servant, with the oil of holiness I have anointed him (Ps. 89:20);
where by "David" is meant the Lord (as also in other passages, see n. 1888); "the oil of holiness with which Jehovah anointed him," denotes the Divine good of the Divine love (see n. 886, 4582, 4638). That it is the Lord who is here meant by "David," is plain from what precedes and from what follows in this Psalm, for it is said:
Thou spoke in vision concerning Thy Holy One, I will set His hand in the sea, and His right hand in the rivers. He shall call Me, My Father; I also will make Him the firstborn, high above the kings of the earth. I will set His seed to eternity, and His throne as the days of the heavens (Ps. 89:19, 25-27, 29);
besides many other passages.
 In like manner in the same:
In Zion will I make a horn to bud unto David; I will set in order a lamp for Mine anointed. His enemies will I clothe with shame; and upon Himself shall His crown flourish (Ps. 132:17, 18).
That here also the Lord is meant by "David," is plain from what precedes, where it is said:
Lo, we heard of Him in Ephrathah, we found Him in the fields of the forest. We will go into His habitations, we will bow at His footstool. Thy priests shall be clothed with righteousness, and Thy saints shall shout for joy. For Thy servant David's sake turn not away the faces of Thine anointed (Ps. 89:6, 7, 9, 10).
From these passages it can be seen that the Lord as to His Divine Human is here meant by "David, the anointed of Jehovah."
 In Jeremiah:
They chased us upon the mountains; they laid wait for us in the wilderness. The breath of our nostrils, the anointed of Jehovah, was taken in their pits, of whom we had said, In His shadow we shall live among the nations (Lam. 4:19, 20);
where also by "the anointed of Jehovah" is meant the Lord, for the subject here treated of is the assault on Divine truth by falsities and evils, which is signified by "being chased upon the mountains," and by "being laid wait for in the wilderness;" "the breath of the nostrils" denotes the heavenly life itself which is from the Lord (n. 9818).
 From all this it can now be known why it was so sacrilegious to injure the anointed of Jehovah, as also is plain from the Word; as in the following passages:
David said, Jehovah forbid that I should do this word unto my lord, the anointed of Jehovah, to put forth my hand against him, seeing that the anointed of Jehovah is he (1 Sam. 24:6, 10).
David said unto Abishai, Destroy him not; for who shall put forth his hand against the anointed of Jehovah and be innocent? (1 Sam. 26:9).
David said unto him who said that he had slain Saul, Thy blood be upon thy head; because thou hast said, I have slain the anointed of Jehovah (2 Sam. 1:16).
Abishai said, Shall not Shimei be slain for this, because he cursed the anointed of Jehovah? (2 Sam. 19:21).
That Shimei was slain for this by order of Solomon, may be seen in 1 Kings 2:36 to the end.
 Seventhly: That it had become customary to anoint themselves and others in order to testify gladness of mind and good will, is evident from the following passages:
I, Daniel, was mourning three weeks. I ate no bread of desires, and flesh and wine came not to my mouth, and anointing I was not anointed, even until three weeks of days were fulfilled (Dan. 10:2, 3).
Thou, when thou fastest, anoint thy head, and wash thy face; that thou appear not to men to fast, but to thy Father in secret (Matt. 6:17, 18).
"To fast" denotes to be in mourning. Again:
They who drink out of goblets of wine, and anoint themselves from the firstfruits of the oils; but they are not grieved over the breach of Joseph (Amos 6:6).
I washed thee with waters; yea, I washed away thy blood, and I anointed thee with oil (Ezek. 16:9);
speaking of Jerusalem, by which is signified the church. Again:
Thou shalt tread the olive, but shalt not anoint thee with oil (Micah 6:15).
Thou shalt have olive trees in all thy border, but thou shalt not anoint thyself with the oil; for thine olive shall be shaken off (Deut. 28:40).
To give unto them a miter for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning (Isa. 61:3).
Thy God hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness beyond thy fellows (Ps. 45:7).
Thou settest in order a table before me in the presence of mine enemies; Thou makest fat my head with oil (Ps. 23:5).
My horn shalt Thou exalt like the horn of the unicorn; I shall grow old with fresh oil (Ps. 92:10).
Wine maketh glad the heart of man, to cheer his faces with oil (Ps. 104:15).
The disciples going out anointed with oil many that were infirm, and healed them (Mark 6:12, 13).
Jesus said unto Simon, I entered into thine house, and My head with oil thou didst not anoint; but this woman hath anointed My feet with ointment (Luke 7:44, 46).
 From all this it is evident that it was customary to anoint themselves and others with oil; not with the oil of holiness with which the priests, the kings, the altar, and the tabernacle were anointed; but with common oil; for the reason that this oil signified the gladness and satisfaction that belong to the love of good; whereas the oil of holiness signified the Divine good, of which it is said:
Upon the flesh of man shall it not be poured, and in the quality thereof ye shall not make any like it. It shall be holy to you. Whosoever shall prepare any like it, or whosoever shall put any of it upon a stranger, he shall be cut off from his peoples (Exod. 30:32, 33, 38).